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The maximum luminosity reached to 2.3*10 The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a third-generation storage-ring-based x-ray source that has been operating for more than 11 years and is enjoying a long period of stable, reliable operation.

While APS is presently providing state-of-the-art performance to its large user community, we must clearly plan for improvements and upgrades to stay at the forefront scientifically.

Due to the absence of coil adjusting in this machine, a measure that helps to achieve a more compact structure (435 ton for the main magnet), the imperfection hence becomes a much more critical factor in our consideration.

The effects by the various kinds of imperfection are investigated numerically and the imperfection fields are predicted for beam dynamics simulation, serving as a basic guidance in the magnet construction for CYCIAE-100.

Now two of four horizontal orbits are assembled and commissioned.

The imperfection may not be ignored and the harmonic coils on the return yokes will make the fields reaching the requirements easier during the shimming.

In order to overcome technological challenges and realize the above future ERL applications, several R&D efforts have been launched in the world.

In this paper, we overview the current status of these R&D programs and envision the future of ERLs.

One orbit for 11-Me V energy with terahertz FEL lies in vertical plane. The beam is directed to these orbits by switching on of two round magnets.

In this case electrons pass four times through accelerating RF cavities, obtaining 40-Me V energy.

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