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The early development of the Frisian pagi and counties is obscure.The Divisio Imperii dated [Feb 831] refers to "Frisi" as one of the territories assigned to the kingdom of Bavaria, but does not name its component counties.From the early 9th century, the territory of the country which is today known as The Netherlands was part of Frisia, which covered the whole coastal area from southern Denmark in the east to Flanders in the west."Frisia" should be distinguished from "Friesland", which is the current name of the northern province of The Netherlands.However, no dukes of Frisia have been identified at that time in the primary sources so far consulted, and few contemporary references have been found to local counts.The division of Lotharingian territories agreed 8 Aug 870 between Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks and his half-brother Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks allocated "comitatus Testrabant, Batia, Hattuaries, Masau" to King Ludwig but only refers generally to Ludwig also receiving "de Frisia duas partes de regno, quod Lotharius habuit" without specifying any of Frisia's component counties.

Liudgeri, which records that "in gente Fresonum ab orientali parte fluminis Labeki" there were five pagi "Hugmerchi, Hunusga, Fivilga, Emisga, Federitga" and one island "Bant".

What is probably the earliest extant list of Frisian pagi is contained in the Traditiones Fuldenses which record donations to the monastery, probably dated to the 8th and 9th centuries, of property in Frisia in pago Wirense [also Wironi]in pago Nvirain pago Mecinga [Meringa]in pago Wisahain pago Tochingenin pago Federetgewein pago Ostrahe [Ostrache]in pago Lieronin pago Emergewe [Emisgowe]in pago Westrahe [Westeriche]in pago Kilingoin pago Tokingenin pago Hunergewein pago Wertingewein pago Lacharenorumin pago Tyesle [Tyelle]in pago Federgewein pago Waldahiin pago Lieren divides his list of Dutch pagi into three categories: Frisian, Saxon and Frankish.

The limited number of surviving primary sources suggests that these influences were not exclusive in the three areas he describes, but the categorisation represents as good a way as any.

This confusion may be due to the lack of definitive names for the Frisian pagi, as many alternate names for the same areas can be identified in the primary sources.

What is clear is that considerable doubt persists about these early medieval territorial divisions in The Netherlands and their precise geographical demarcations.

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